Applications

Basic Models with additional OPTIONS and ACCESSORIES. Download BROCHURES.

There are 77 papers published by users of our instruments and 35 papers published by us in the major international Journals as of June 1, 2013. They are organized in 14 applications. Each application note below contains references and web links to the relevant papers from this list. You can access this references by clicking on particular application.

There are also 21 newsletters presented as pdf files for variety of different dispersions and emulsions

General Acoustics and Electroacoustics, method verification.

There are several published paper verifying basic principles of Acoustics and Electroacoustics for characterizing concentrated dispersions and emulsions.

Ishikawa, Y., Aoki, N., and Ohshima, H. “Characterization of latex particles for aqueous polymeric coating by electroacoustic method“,Colloids and Surfaces B, 46, 147-151 (2005)

Richter, A., Babick, F., Ripperger, S. “Polydisperse particle size characterization by ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy for systems of diverse acoustic contrast in the large particle limit“, J. Acoustic Society America, 118, 3, (2005 )

Kosmulski, M., Hartikainen, J., Maczka, E., Janus, W. and Rosenholm, J.B. “Multiinstrument study of the electrophoretic mobility of fumed silica”, Anal.Chem., 74, 253-256 (2002)

Hackley, V., Patton, J., Lum, L., Wasche, R.J., Naito, M., Abe, H., Hotta, Y., and Pendse, H. “Analysis of the isoelectric point in moderately concentrated alumina suspensions using electroacoustic and streaming potential methods”, J. of Dispersion Science and Technology, 23, 5, 601-617 (2002)

Takeda, Shin-ichi, and Goetz, P.J. “Dispersed/flocculated size characterization of alumina particles in highly concentrated slurries by ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy”, Colloids and Surfaces, 143, 35-39 (1998)</.p>

Dukhin, A.S. , Goetz, P.J and Hackley, V., “Modified Log-Normal Particle Size Distribution in Acoustic Spectroscopy“, Colloids and Surfaces, 138, 1-9 (1998)

Wines, T.H., Dukhin A.S. and Somasundaran, P. “Acoustic spectroscopy for characterizing heptane/water/AOT reverse microemulsion”,JCIS, 216, 303-308 (1999)

Nanotechnology.

Particle size characterization of small nano-particles is very challenging because sound attenuation caused by these particles is comparable with attenuation of water. Nevertheless we have measured successfully many systems with particle size below 100 nanometers. There are many examples published in the papers that are listed below.

There is a big advantages of Acoustics over light based methods in ability of characterizing broad particle size distributions, which include nano-size fractions. Our recent studies show that Acoustics could monitor presence of nano-particles with precision of 1%. This is important for nano-ecology and nano-toxicology.

Characterization of zeta potential of nanosize particles is simpler than for particles with micron size. There is no need inparticle size correction. Electroacoustic spectrometer measures basically Smoluchowski electrophoretic mobility.

Zeta potential probe can also be used for monitoring presence of small amounts of large sedimenting particles in opaque dispersions of nano-particles

Bell, N., Cesarano, J., Voight, J.A., Lockwood, S.J. and Dimos D.B. “Colloidal processing of chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors. Part 1. Milling and dispersion of powder“, J. Mat. Res., 19, 5, 1333-1340 (2004)

Bell, N. and Rodriguez, M.A. “Dispersion properties of an alumina nanopowder using molecular, polyelectrolyte, and stericstabilization”, J. of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 4, 3, 283-290 (2004)

Sun, Y.-P., Li, X., Cao, J., Zhang, W. and Wang.H.P. “Characterization of zero-valent iron nano-particles”, Adv. in Colloid and Interface Sci., 120, 47-56 (2006)

Gaydardzhiev, S. and Ay,P. “Evaluation of dispersant efficiency for aqueous alumina slurries by concurrent techniques”, J. of Dispersion Science and Technology, 27, 413-417 (2006)

Wilhelm, P., Stephan, D. “On-line tracking of the coating of nanoscaled silica with titania nanoparticles via zeta-potential measurements”, JCIS, 293, 88-92 (2006)

Sun, Y.P., Li, X.Q., Zhang, W.X., Wang, H.P. “A method for the preparation of stable dispersion of zero-valent iron nano-particles”, Colloids and surfaces, 308, 60-66 (2007)

Mende, S. “Representarive on-line measurement of comminution results for nanogriding in stirred media mill”, NETCH, doctoral thesis

Stenger, F. Mende, S., Schwedes, J. and Peukert, W. “Nanomilling in stirred media mills”, Chemical Engineering Science, 60, 4557-4565 (2005)

Dukhin, A. S. “Observation of sol-gel transition for carbon nanotubes using electroacoustics: Colloid vibration current versus streaming vibration current.” JCIS, vol.310, 1, 270-280 (2007)

Comba, S. and Sethi, R. “Stabilization of highly concentrated suspersions of iron nanoparticles using shear-thinning gels of xanthan gum“, Water Research, 43, 15, 3717-3726 (2009)

Bio-Sciences and Pharmaceuticals

There are several developed applications with results published in the papers presented below. This includes:

  • characterization of electric properties of chromatographic resins for proper control of their interactions with proteins
  • particle size and evolution of micelles
  • particle size of cells
  • electric charges (valency) of proteins
  • proteins adsorption.

Acoustics is also suitable for characterizing pharmaceutical emulsions and microemulsions with no dilution. Dilution is critical for such systems because it affect equilibrium there and can change droplet size distribution.

Acoustic measurement at a single frequency and single gap can be used for very fast monitoring kinetics of dissolving and crystallization. It offers several measurements per second.

Mueller, E. and Faude, A. “Investigation of salt properties with electroacoustic measurements and their effect on dynamic binding capacity in hydrophobic interaction chromatography”, J. of Chromatography A., vol. 1177, issue 2, 215-225 (2008)

Mueller, E. and Mann C. “Resin characterization by electroacoustic measurements”, J. of Chromatography A., vol. 1144, issue 1, 30-39 (2007)

Rezwan, K., Meier, L.P., Rezwan, M., Voros, J., Textor, M. and Gauckler, L.J. “Bovine cerum albumin adsorption onto colloidal Al2O3 particles. A new model based on zeta potential and UV-Vis Measurements”, Langmuir, (2005)

Rezwan, K., Meier, L.P., and Gauckler, L.J. “Lysozyme and bovine cerum albumin adsorption on uncoated silica and ALOOH-coated silica particles: the influence of positively and negatively charged oxide surface coatings”, Biomaterials, 26, 4351-4357 (2005)

Bonacucina, G., Misici-Falzi, M., Cespi, M., Palmieri, G.F. “Characterization of micellar systems by the use of Acoustic spectroscopy”, J. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1-11 (2007)

Dukhin, A. S., Goetz, P.J. and Theo G.M. van de Ven, “Ultrasonic characterization of proteins and blood cells”, Colloids and Surfaces B, 52, 121-126 (2006)

Ceramics

Acoustics can characterize particle size and zeta potential in ceramic slurries with no dilution. There are several paper published on this subject and listed below.

There is also possibility to characterize mixtures of different oxides, such as alumina and zirconia, see Chapter 8 in the book by Dukhin and Goetz. This can answer question regarding aggregation between particles of different nature.

Takeda, S., Harano, H., Tari, I. “Particle size characterization of highly concentrated alumina slurries by ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy”, in Improved Ceramics through New Measurements, Processing and Standards, Ceramic Transactuions, vol. 133, 59-63 (2002)

Takeda, S., Suenaga, H. and Tari, I. “Particle size characterization of highly concentrated barium titanate slurries by ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy”, in Improved Ceramics through New Measurements, Processing and Standards, Ceramic Transactuions, vol. 133, 53-59 (2002)

Takeda, Shin-ichi, and Goetz, P.J. “Dispersed/flocculated size characterization of alumina particles in highly concentrated slurries by ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy”, Colloids and Surfaces, 143, 35-39 (1998)

Dukhin, A.S. and Goetz, P.J. “Characterization of Concentrated Dispersions with Several Dispersed Phases by means ofAcoustic Spectroscopy”, Langmuir, 16, 20, 7597-7604 (2000)

CMP slurries

There are two papers published on subject of applicability of ultrasound for characterizing CMP slurries, see below. There are also 2 newsletters, # 1 and # 13 on the same subject.

Acoustics provides accurate particle size that agrees well with independent data. It can monitor presence of 1% large particles on the background of small nano-particles.

Electroacoustics yields very precise value of zeta potential

These measurements can be done with no dilution, which opens possibility for continuous on-line control of the slurry properties. However, calculation of the particle size and zeta potential requires information on the volume fraction. This parameter must be independently measured.

1.Dukhin, A.S., Fluck, D., Goetz, P.J., Shilov, V.N. and Dukhin, S.S. “Characterization of fractal particles using Acoustics, Electroacoustics, Light Scattering, Image analysis and Conductivity”, Langmuir, 23, 10, pp.5338-5351 (2007)

2.Dukhin, A.S. and Goetz, P.J “Characterization of Chemical Polishing Materials (monomodal and bimodal) by means ofAcoustic Spectroscopy “, Colloids and Surfaces, 158, 343-354 (1999)

Cement

Both ultrasound based methods, Acoustics and Electroacoustics, can be used for monitoring effects of the plastisizer on the properties of cement slurry, as proved in the papers listed below. With no dilution.

Elimination of dilution is critical for accurate measurement of the cement zeta potential Cement slurry could be affect very strongly by dilution. Zeta potential probe offers zeta potential measurement with precision 0.1 mV.

Hackley, A.V., Lum, Lin-Sien, Ferraris, C.F. “Acoustic sensing of Hydrating Cement Suspensions: An explanatory study”, NIST Technical Note 1492, (2007)

Plank, J. and Hirch, C. “Impact of zeta potential of early cement hydration phases on superplasticizer adsorption“, Cement and Concrete Research, (2007)

Plank, J. and Sachsenhauser, B. “Impact of molecular structure on zeta potential and adsorbed conformation of a-allyl-w-methoxypolyethylene glycol-maleic anhydride superplasticizers“, J. of Advanced Concrete Technology, 4, 2, 233-239 (2006)

Plank, J. and Gretz, M. “Study on the interaction between anionic and cationic latex particles and Portland cement“, Colloids and Surfaces, 330, 227-233 (2008)

Plank, J. and Winter, Ch. “Competitive adsorption between superplasticizer and retarder molecules on mineral binder surface“, Cement and Concrete Research, 38, 599-605 (2008)

Minerals

Application of Acoustics and Electroacoustics for characterizing minerals dispersions are described in the papers listed below.

Titration option DTI instruments is suitable for determining optimum dose of surfactant for stabilizing clay dispersions, as described in the ref. 3.

Guerin, M. Seaman, J.C., Lehmann, C., and Jurgenson, A. “Acoustic and electroacoustic characterization of variable charge mineral suspensions“, Clays and Clay Minerals, vol. 52, 2, 158-

Guerin, M. and Seaman, J.C. “Characterizing clay mineral suspensions using acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy“, Clays and Clay Minerals, 52, 2, 145-157 (2004)

Dukhin, A.S., Goetz, P.J. and Truesdail, S.T. “Surfactant titration of kaolin slurries using zeta potential probe”, Langmuir, 17, 964-968 (2001)

Pigments

There are several experimental studies of the properties of concentrated oxides dispersions (rutile, zirconia, alumina, zinc oxide, etc) presented in the book by Dukhin and Goetz, Ultrasound for Characterizing Colloids”.

Zeta potential at extreme ionic strengths

Electroacoustics could be used at the extremely high ionic strength above 1 M, as well as for non-polar liquids with conductivity below 10-10 S/m.

This method yields not only zeta potential at these extreme conditions, but also electric surface charge and even size of ions in non-polar liquids.

Tassel van J., Randall, C.A. “Surface chemistry and surface charge formation for an alumina powder in ethanol with addition of HCl and KOH“, JCIS, 241, 302-316 (2001)

Kosmulski M. and Rosenholm, J.B. “High ionic strength electrokinetics”, Adv. in Colloid and Interface Science”, 112, 93-107 (2004)

Dukhin, A.S., Dukhin S.S. and Goetz, P.J. “Electrokinetics at high ionic strength and hypothesis of the Double Layer with Zero Surface Charge“, Langmuir, 21 (22) pp.9990-9997 (2005)

Dukhin, A. S. and Goetz, P.J. “How non-ionic “electrically neutral” surfactants enhance electrical conductivity and ion stability in non-polar liquids“, J. of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 588, 44-50 (2006)

Zeta potential in porous bodies.

Propagation of ultrasound through a porous body creates motion of liquid inside of the pores relative to the solid matrix. This, in turn, causes relative motion of ions that are located in the diffuse layer and on the pores surfaces. This shows us as an electric current. This current is similar to the Streaming Current, with the difference that it oscillates in time. It is called Streaming Vibration Current. There have been 3 papers already published reporting experimental observation of this effect. The first theoretical paper was published in 1983.

This effect can be used for very fast and simple measuring electric surface properties of porous bodies.

Dukhin, A. S. “Observation of sol-gel transition for carbon nanotubes using electroacoustics: Colloid vibration current versus streaming vibration current“. JCIS, vol.310, 1, 270-280 (2007)

Mueller, E. and Mann C. “Resin characterization by electroacoustic measurements”, J. of Chromatography A., vol. 1144, issue 1, 30-39 (2007)

Williams, M. “An Electrokinetic Transducer”, The review of scientific instruments, 19, 10, 640-646 (1948)

Dukhin, S.S., Mischuk, N.A., Kuz’menko, B.B and Il’in, B.I. “Flow current and potential in a high-frequency acoustic field”, Colloid J., 45, 5, 875-881 (1983)

Dukhin, A.S., Goetz, P.J., Thommes, M. “The seismoelectric effect: A non-isochoric streaming current: 1. Experiment“, JCIS, 2010

Dukhin, A.S. and Shilov, V.N. “The seismoelectric effect: A non-isochoric streaming current: 2. Theory and its experimental verificationJCIS, 2010

Coatings

Acoustics is shown as a suitable tool for characterizing coating dispersions. Particle size distribution measured for intact concentrated dispersion agrees very well with independent data.

Schoelkopf, J., Gantenbein, D. Dukhin, A.S., Goetz, P.J., Gane P.A.C.“Novel Particle size characterization of coating pigments” OMYA

Dairy products

Detail study presented in the paper listed below indicates that Acoustics yields a proper Particle size distribution in various dairy products. This can be achieved with no dilution.

In addition, Acoustics yields information for calculating fat content.

Dukhin, A.S., Goetz, P.J. and Travers, B. “Use of Ultrasound for Characterizing Dairy Products“, J.Dairy Science, 88, 4, pp. 1-15 (2005)

Emulsions and microemulsions

Acoustics makes possible measurement of Particle size of the emulsion and microemulsion droplets with no dilution, which is critical for these systems. Papers presented below indicate very good agreement between this method and independent data.

Combination of Acoustics and Electroacoustics could reveal peculiar mechanisms controlling emulsion stability, such as ion exchange in water-in-oil emulsion, see Ref. 4.

Geers, H. Witt, W. and Babick, F. “Stability analysis of emulsions and suspensions with photon cross-correlation spectroscopy”, PARTEC 2007

Magual, A., Horvath-Szabo G., Masliyah, J.H. “Acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy of water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions“, Langmuir, 21, 8649-8657 (2005)

Richter, A. Voight, T and Ripperger, S. “Ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy of emulsions with droplet size greater than 10 microns”, JCIS, 315, 482-492 (2007)

Dukhin, A.S. and Goetz, P.J. “Evolution of water-in-oil emulsion controlled by droplet-bulk ion exchange: acoustic, electroacoustic, conductivity and image analysis“, Colloids and Surfaces, A, 253, 51-64 (2005)

Wines, T.H., Dukhin A.S. and Somasundaran, P. “Acoustic spectroscopy for characterizing heptane/water/AOT reverse microemulsion“, JCIS, 216, 303-308 (1999)

Dukhin, A.S., Goetz, P.J. and Hamlet, C.W. “Acoustic Spectroscopy for Concentrated Polydisperse Colloids with Low Density Contrast“, Langmuir, 12, 21, 4998-5004 (1996)

Cosmetics

Acoustics provides opportunity for characterizing content of nano-particles in cosmetic dispersions with broad Particle size distributions. Precision is about 1% of the total solids content.

Dukhin, A.S., Goetz, P.J., Xiaohua Fang, Somasundaran, P. “Monitoring nanoparticles in the presence of larger particles in liquids using acoustics and electron microscopy“, JCIS, 342, 1, pp.18-25 (2010)